Initially the process of production of Ferro Silicon was developed empirically. Ferro Silicon is made by reducing quartzite with metallurgical coke/gas coke/Low Temperature Carbonized coke/charcoal. Quartz, quatzite and chelcedony are the cheapest minerals rich in silicon are used for the manufcture of Ferro Silicon. In India mainly charcoal is used. The techno-economics of the process of Ferro Silicon production improves considerably with the increase of the capacity of the furnace. The feasibility of using plasma smelting of low cost taconite tailings to produce Ferro Silicon at a high yield has been demonstrated. Large amounts of Ferro Silicon are used for the reduction of various oxides in Ferro alloy production and high percentage Ferro Silicon in the form of powder is used as a slag deoxidiser. The scale of operation of Ferro Silicon production has increased steadily, and furnace construction and the auxiliary systems for transport, weighing and control have been modernised but hte basic process is essentially unchanged. This paper provides an overviw of the raw material requirements, thermochemical consideration, charge calculation, operating conditions, recent developments and, finally, the results of pilot scale trial and industrial plant.
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